(ORSTOM, Collection Faune et Flore tropicales. PLoS ONE 7 , e33417 . Publication Details. Voigt, O., Wülfing, E. and Wörheide, G. (2012) Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea). Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges: monophyly of calcinea and calcaronea, high level of morphological homoplasy, and the primitive nature of axial symmetry. SpongeMaps is a tool for online collaboration among sponge biologists for sponge identification, sponge taxonomy, focused on the Phylum Porifera The results of chemical, X-ray diffraction and infra-red analyses, together with specific gravity determinations, are presented for the spicules of seven species of Calcarea. The Calcarea first appears at the base of the Lower Cambrian and has persisted until the present. Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. Department of Zoology. Rapp et al. (2009a) Of the 15,000 or so species of Porifera that exist, only 400 of those are calcareans. Of the 15,000 or so species of Porifera that exist, only 400 of … These spicules do not have hollow axial canals. The skeleton has either a mesh or honeycomb structure. ISBN 0-306-47260-0. xix, 1-1101, 1103-1706 (2 volumes) pp. Burton, M. (1963) A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges. Dendy, A. and H. Row, 1913. British Museum (Natural History), London. Burton, M., 1963. Burton, Maurice, 1898-1992 British Museum (Natural History). (1913) The classification and phylogeny of the calcareous sponges with a reference list of all the described species. Archaeocyathid reefs have a worldwide distribution and…. Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. The term is derived from the name given by Ernst Haeckel to a stage in the development of calcareous sponges, the gastrula, a ciliated egg-shaped larva with a mouth and a gut (Haeckel, 1872). While the spicules in most species have three points, in some species they have either two or four points. According to Haeckel, the gastrula stage can be found in the development of all animals, and represents the recapitulation of the ancestral metazoan, the Gastraea, a diploblastic animal with a ciliated gut ( … Classification of Sponge: Chiefly on the basis of skeleton, phylum Porifera (Sponge) is divided into three classes. The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges. The most common spicule shape are triactines with three pointed spires, which are shown in the figure below from Van Soest et al., 2012. Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite. Dendy, A. and H. Row, 1913. Proc. By G. P. BIDDER. Published material. * The contours of the surfaces, particularly where they rise over The spicules are composed of magnesian calcite. The classification and phylogeny of the calcareous sponges, with a reference list of all the described species, systematically arranged. Manuel M(1), Borchiellini C, Alivon E, Le Parco Y, Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N. Typically, calcareous sponges are small, measuring less than 10 cm (3.9 in) in height, and drab in colour. The classification and phylogeny of the calcareous sponges, with a reference list of all the described species, systematically arranged. The spicules are composed of magnesian calcite. All three sponge body plans are represented within class Calcarea : asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. By G. P. BIDDER. (Ed. A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges : with a catalogue of the specimens in the British Museum (Natural History) By. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. About Sanctuary Home History Regulations FAQs Sanctuary Staff Natural Setting NW Gulf Banks Species List Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems Research Vessel Sanctuary Encyclopedia 20 Things to Love NOAA Corps Staff: SPONGE SPECIES. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Invertebrate Zoology. A look in a microscope reveals that the tube walls are smooth. W. Clowes and Sons Ltd., London, 693 pp. Taxonomy of Calcareous Sponges. Porifera (sponges), class: Calcarea . Taxonomy of Calcareous Sponges. Calcareous sponges take a wide range of shapes, including irregular massive forms, vase-shaped bodies on a stalk or meshworks of thin tubes. Department of Zoology. However, a few brightly coloured species are also known. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. p. 104. Greater than 100 fossil genera are known. with a catalogue of the specimens in the british museum, natural history. Aragonite was sought but not proven, although the presence of quartz complicates its detection. Type. Demosponges: They behave like sponges without spicules such as bath sponge … The most common spicule shape are triactines with three pointed spires, which are shown in the figure below from Van Soest et al., 2012. These organisms are sessile creatures that can reproduce by both asexual and sexual methods. Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Calcarea (L. Calcis- lime): The skeleton is of calcareous spicules. The … "The Skeleton and Classification of Calcareous Sponges." Leucosolenia: It is a simplest colonial sponge consisting of number of horizontal and vertical tubes. Calcareous Sponges are one of the three branches of the Phylum Porifera. SpongeMaps is a tool for online collaboration among sponge biologists for sponge identification, sponge taxonomy, focused on the Phylum Porifera (1913) The classification and phylogeny of the calcareous sponges with a reference list of all the described species. Calcarea or Calcispongiae: a. Calcareous sponges; skeleton solely of calcareous spicules which may be one, three or four-rayed … I. Skeleton. Memebers of the group Calcarea are the only sponges that possess spicules composed of calcium carbonate. Calcarea (L. Calcis- lime): The skeleton is of calcareous spicules. They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate. Porifera (sponges), class: Calcarea . Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. The diameter of the entire sponge is less than 3 cm. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. The calcareous sponges are divided into two subclasses and six orders: Barnes, Robert D. (1982). , 2011 ). 693 pp. One of the most amazing aspects of the Calcareous Sponges is that it is able to regenerate a piece of an already grown and matured adult into a completely new organism. The results of chemical, X-ray diffraction and infra-red analyses, together with specific gravity determinations, are presented for the spicules of seven species of Calcarea. Class 1. Department of Zoology. In an attempt to understand gastrulation in calcareous sponges and determine whether there might be homology of the germ layers between the Calcarea and other metazoans, we have studied the development, metamorphosis, structure and function of the calcareous sponge Sycon, a member of the Calcaronea, the sponges studied by Haeckel and by his followers. A common feature is the supporting skeleton, made of calcareous, star shaped structures - or spicules. Molecular Phylogenetic Evaluation of Classification and Scenarios of Character Evolution in Calcareous Sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea) By Oliver Voigt (90080), Eilika … With a Catalogue of the specimens in the British Museum (Natural History). The fossil record of unambiguously identified Calcarea is relatively poor and fragmented. Distribution: ), Sponges of the New Caledonian Lagoon. Molecular Phylogenetic Evaluation of Classification and Scenarios of Character Evolution in Calcareous Sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea) By Oliver Voigt (90080), Eilika … Classification. Book Material. Type. (ORSTOM, Collection Faune et Flore tropicales. Of the 15,000 or so species of Porifera that exist, only 400 of those are Calcareans. They occur mostly in shallow waters; only a few species are known from the deep sea (for an overview see, e.g. (2009a) Classification. A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges. The archaeocyathids probably fed much as sponges do—by drawing in water and separating food material from it before discharging the strained water. Most calcareous sponges in the fossil record were classified as either stromatoporoids, chaetetids, archaeocyaths, inozoans, pharetronids, or sphinctozoans. ), Sponges of the New Caledonian Lagoon. , 2011 ). Ecological and distributional characters are important in distinguishing species, particularly in groups (e.g., haliclonids) in which skeletal and embryological characters are so Verwer et al. Calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea) include about 675 accepted extant species (Van Soest et al., 2011), which are exclusively marine. Typically, the Calcarea are very small, measuring about 7-10 cm (3-4 inches) in height. A class of marine sponges of the phylum Porifera which have spicules of calcium carbonate, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Calcareous_sponge&oldid=983869299, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 October 2020, at 18:50. Omissions? They are common in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, however, rare in the Cenozoic. Book Material. Of the 15,000 or so species of Porifera that exist, only 400 of those are Calcareans. Publication info Sycon cf. Burton, Maurice, 1898-1992 British Museum (Natural History). 693 pp. This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation Zool. The skeleton has either a mesh or honeycomb structure. A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges : with a catalogue of the specimens in the British Museum (Natural History) By. Approximately 10,000 species of sponges are known at present, and the phylum is divided into three classes, viz., Calcarea or Calcispongiae, Hexactinellida or Hyalospongiae, and Demospongiae and about twelve orders chiefly on the type of skeleton. Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Updates? Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. All of the following sponges are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). Communicated by ADAM SEDGWICK, F.R.S. Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. Sponges of the New Caledonian Lagoon: Class Demospongiae, Order Agelasida. Distribution: Calcareous sponge A possible calcareous sponge encrusted by a siliceous hexactinellid. They are common in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, however, rare in the Cenozoic. Leucosolenia: It is a simplest colonial sponge consisting of number of horizontal and vertical tubes. Class Calcarea includes sponges that are small in size and less colorful than other sponge classes. Classification. Verwer et al. The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges.